bread which came from Ukrainian wheat, and Moscow had plenty. The wheat was grown in Ukraine, but we had a lack of it Senator DeCONCINI: Thank you. Does your father have any estimation of while he was there how many people he thinks died? Mr. PETRENKO: He couldn't even quote any figures for that, because he had to leave the village. He was working on the railroad away from the village, some miles away, so not really could he state any figure at all. Senator DeCONCINI: Thank you very much. Ms. MAZURKEVICH: In the same vein as Senator DeConcini started, Mr. Petrenko, you were saying that the famine was propagated by Moscow, and it was limited only to the Ukraine. Were there any other areas in the Soviet Union that the famine was reaching? Mr. PETRENKO: Not to his knowledge about any other. He just repeated, in order to get bread, one had to go to Moscow to get it. Senator DeCONCINI: How far was that? Mr. PETRENKO: About a thousand kilometers. Senator DeCONCINI: Commissioner? Dr. KUROPAS: Yes, you mentioned that sometimes the parents died leaving the children. What would happen to the children when the parents died, and there was no relative to take care of them? Mr. PETRENKO: Most likely, it was the local people that picked them up and cared for them as much as they could and as long as they could. Senator DeCONCINI: Mr. Petrenko, I want to thank you, and I wish you would please thank your father for taking the time today. I know these are uncomfortable things to do, but tell him that it is very important for those of us who have never wit¬nessed this and never heard the story, and that indeed, as a Member of Congress, I greatly appreciate it. If you would convey that to him, I would appreciate it. Mr, PETRENKO: Thank you, Senator. Senator DeCONCINI: We will now proceed with some witnesses from the audience that wanted to be heard. We'll ask Mr. and Mrs. Harmash if they would come forward. Dr. SAMILENKO-TSVETKOV: With the permission of the witnesses, I will read a translation of the testimony of Max Harmash. TESTIMONY OF MR. MAX HARMASH OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA At the time of the great famine, our permanent place of residence was the city of Dnipropetrovsk. My profession in agriculture required me to live separately in the country. At that time in 1932, my wife was pregnant, and our first baby was born in 1933. Working on a state farm along the river near the regional center, I received some food rations such as a two-and-a-half pound loaf of bread and one-half quart milk, and oc¬casionally soup consisting of soybean and water, cooked for the workers in the state-farm kitchen which they opened for only two hours each day.
Curriculum Resources » General Archive » U.S. Congressional Commission on the Ukrainian Famine » 3 - Second Interim Report